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Sebastion's Bay near Overberg. In , Dutch sailors Leendert Jansz and Nicholas Proot had been shipwrecked in Table Bay and marooned for five months until picked up by a returning ship.
Both men presented a report advocating the Table valley as a fort and garden for the East India fleets. We say, therefore, that the Honourable Company, by the formation of a fort or redoubt, and also of a garden of such size as may be practicable or necessary at the above-mentioned Cabo de Boa Esperanza, upon a suitable spot in Table Valley, stationing there according to your pleasure sixty to seventy as well soldiers as sailors, and a few persons acquainted with gardening and horticulture, could raise, as well for the ships and people bound to India as for those returning thence, many kinds of fruit, as will hereafter be more particularly demonstrated.
Under recommendation from Jan van Riebeeck , the Heeren XVII authorised the establishment of a fort at the Cape, and this the more hurriedly to preempt any further imperial maneuvers by Britain, France or Portugal.
In extent the new refreshment post was to be kept as confined as possible to reduce administrative expense.
The VOC operated under a strict corporate hierarchy which allowed it to formally assign classifications to those whom it determined fell within its legal purview.
They had to be married Dutch citizens who were regarded as being "of good character" by the VOC and committed to at least twenty years' residence in South Africa.
Around March , Rijcklof van Goens , a senior VOC officer appointed as commissioner to the fledgling Dutch Cape Colony , ordered Jan van Riebeeck to help more employees succeed as vriburgers so the company could save on their wages.
In van Riebeeck was succeeded by Zacharias Wagenaer as governor of the Cape. Wagenaer was somewhat aloof towards the vrijburgers, whom he dismissed as "sodden, lazy, clumsy louts In there were VOC officials, employees, soldiers and sailors at the Cape, compared to only about 64 vrijburgers, 39 of whom were married, with 65 children.
Following the passage of the Edict of Fontainebleau , the Netherlands served as a major destination for French Huguenot refugees fleeing persecution at home.
Long before the British annexed the Cape Colony, there were already large Dutch-speaking European settlements in the Cape Peninsula and beyond; by the time British rule became permanent in these had a population of over 26, The second subgroup of the vrijburger population became known as the Cape Dutch and remained concentrated in the southwestern Cape and especially the areas closer to Cape Town.
Meanwhile, the VOC underwent a period of commercial decline beginning in the late eighteenth century which ultimately resulted in its bankruptcy.
Relations between some of the colonists and the new British administration quickly soured. In , a Cape police unit was dispatched to arrest a Boer for failure to appear in court on charges of cruelty towards his Khoisan servants; the colonist fired on the troopers when they entered his property and was killed.
Bridling at what they considered an unwarranted intrusion into their way of life, some in the Boer community began to consider selling their farms and venturing deep into South Africa's unmapped interior to preempt further disputes and live completely independent from British rule.
In the s and s, an organised migration of an estimated 14, Boers, known as voortrekkers , across the Cape Colony's frontier began.
Many of the Boers who participated in the Great Trek had varying motives. While most were driven by some form of disenchantment with British policies, their secondary objectives ranged from seeking more desirable grazing land for their cattle to a desire to retain their slaves after the abolition of slavery at the Cape.
As important as the Trek was to the formation of Boer ethnic identity, so were the running conflicts with various indigenous groups along the way.
One conflict central to the construction of Boer identity occurred with the Zulu in the area of present-day KwaZulu-Natal.
The Boers who entered Natal discovered that the land they wanted came under the authority of the Zulu King Dingane ka Senzangakhona , who ruled that part of what subsequently became KwaZulu-Natal.
The British had a small port colony the future Durban there but were unable to seize the whole of area from the war-ready Zulus, and only kept to the Port of Natal.
The Boers found the land safe from the British and sent an un-armed Boer land treaty delegation under Piet Retief on 6 February , to negotiate with the Zulu King.
The negotiations went well and a contract between Retief and Dingane was signed. After the signing, however, Dingane's forces surprised and killed the members of the delegation; a large-scale massacre of the Boers followed.
Zulu impis regiments attacked Boer encampments in the Drakensberg foothills at what was later called Blaauwkrans and Weenen , killing women and children along with men.
By contrast, in earlier conflicts the trekkers had experienced along the eastern Cape frontier, the Xhosa had refrained from harming women and children.
A commando of men arrived to help the settlers. On 16 December , the Voortrekkers under the command of Andries Pretorius confronted about 10, Zulus at the prepared positions.
Due to the blood of 3, slain Zulus that stained the Ncome River , the conflict afterwards became known as the Battle of Blood River. In present-day South Africa, 16 December remains a celebrated public holiday, initially called "Dingane's Day".
After , the holiday was officially named Day of the Covenant, changed to Day of the Vow in Mackenzie [ clarification needed ] and to Day of Reconciliation in The Boers saw their victory at the Battle of Blood River as evidence that they had found divine favour for their exodus from British rule.
After defeating the Zulu and the recovery of the treaty between Dingane and Retief, the Voortrekkers proclaimed the Natalia Republic. In , Britain annexed Natal and many Boers trekked inwards again.
Due to the return of British rule, Boers fled to the frontiers to the north-west of the Drakensberg mountains, and onto the highveld of the Transvaal and Transoranje.
These areas were mostly unoccupied due to conflicts in the course of the genocidal Mfecane wars of the Zulus on the local Basuthu population who used it as summer grazing for their cattle.
Some Boers ventured far beyond the present-day borders of South Africa, north as far as present-day Zambia and Angola.
The second ended with British victory and annexation of the Boer areas into the British colonies. The British employed scorched-earth tactics and held many Boers in concentration camps as a means to separate commandos from their source of shelter, food and supply.
The strategy was employed effectively but an estimated 27, Boers mainly women and children under sixteen died in these camps from hunger and disease.
In the s, some Boers trekked into Mashonaland , where they were concentrated at the town of Enkeldoorn, now Chivhu.
Starting in to a large group of around Afrikaners  emigrated to the Patagonia region of Argentina most notably to the towns of Comodoro Rivadavia and Sarmiento ,   choosing to settle there due to its similarity to the Karoo region of South Africa.
Another group emigrated to British-ruled Kenya, from where most returned to South Africa during the s as a result of warfare there amongst indigenous people.
A relatively large group of Boers settled in Kenya. The first wave of migrants consisted of individual families, followed by larger multiple-family treks.
The second wave of migrants is exemplified by Jan Janse van Rensburg 's trek. Janse van Rensburg was inspired by an earlier Boer migrant, Abraham Joubert, who had moved to Nairobi from Arusha in , along with others.
When Joubert visited the Transvaal that year, Janse van Rensburg met with him. On his return to the Transvaal, van Rensburg recruited about Afrikaners comprising either 47 or 60 families to accompany him to British East Africa.
The party travelled by five trains to Nakuru. In the last of the large trek groups departed for Kenya, when some 60 families from the Orange Free State boarded the SS Skramstad in Durban under leadership of C.
When the British granted self-government to the former Boer republics of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State in and , respectively, the pressure for emigration decreased.
A trickle of individual trekker families continued to migrate into the s. A combination of factors spurred on Boer migration. Many migrants were extremely poor and had subsisted on others' property.
One of the best known Boer settlements in the British East Africa Protectorate became established at Eldoret , in the south west of what became known as Kenya in By some Boers lived here, near the Uganda border.
Armed forces under the leadership of General Louis Botha defeated the German forces, who were unable to put up much resistance to the overwhelming South African forces.
Many Boers, who had little love or respect for Britain, objected to the use of the " children from the concentration camps " to attack the anti-British Germans, resulting in the Maritz Rebellion of , which was quickly quelled by the government forces.
Some Boers subsequently moved to South West Africa, which was administered by South Africa until its independence in , after which the country adopted the name Namibia.
Scholars have traditionally considered Afrikaners to be a homogeneous population of Dutch ancestry, subject to a significant founder effect.
Afrikaners are descended, to varying degrees, from Dutch, German and French Huguenot immigrants, along with minor percentages of other Europeans and indigenous African peoples.
Their numbers can be easily reconstructed from censuses of the Cape rather than passenger lists, taking into account VOC employees who later returned to Europe.
Johannes Heese. Based on his genealogical research of the period from to , Dr. Johannes Heese in his study Die Herkoms van die Afrikaners estimated an average ethnic admixture for Afrikaners of He then divided the period between and into six thirty-year blocs, and working under the assumption that earlier colonists contributed more to the gene pool, multiplied each child's bloodline by 32, 16, 8, 4, 2 and 1 according to respective period.
The degree of intermixing among Afrikaners may be attributed to the unbalanced sex ratio which existed under Dutch governance. Between and no more than women arrived at the Cape, as compared to the 1, male colonists.
These were reinforced by the familial interdependence of the Cape's credit and mortgage obligations. According to a genetic study in February , almost all Afrikaners have admixture from non-Europeans.
The total amount of non-European ancestry is 4. Among the 77 Afrikaners investigated, 6. It appears that some 3. Only 1.
Approximately black families who identify as Afrikaners live in the settlement of Onverwacht , established in near the mining town of Cullinan.
Members of the community descend from the freed slaves who had accompanied Voortrekkers who settled in the area.
In South Africa, an Afrikaner minority party, the National Party , came to power in and enacted a series of segregationist laws favouring White people known as apartheid , meaning "separateness".
These laws allowed for the systematic persecution of opposition leaders and attempted to enforce general white supremacy by classifying all South African inhabitants into racial groups.
Non-White political participation was outlawed, Black citizenship revoked, and the entire public sphere, including education, residential areas, medical care and common areas such as public transport, beaches and amenities, was segregated.
Apartheid was officially abolished in  after decades of widespread unrest by opponents who were seeking equal rights, led by supporters of the United Democratic Front , Pan-African Congress , South African Communist Party , and African National Congress , and a long international embargo against South Africa.
Efforts are being made by some Afrikaners to secure minority rights. Protection of minority rights is fundamental to the new post-apartheid Constitution of South Africa.
These efforts include the Volkstaat movement. In contrast, a handful of Afrikaners have joined the ruling African National Congress party, which is overwhelmingly supported by South Africa's Black majority.
To right decades of discrimination, Employment Equity legislation favours employment of Black African, Indian, Chinese and Coloured population groups, White women, disabled people South Africans over White men.
Black Economic Empowerment legislation further favours Blacks as the government considers ownership, employment, training and social responsibility initiatives which empower Black South Africans as important criteria when awarding tenders.
However, private enterprise adheres to this legislation voluntarily. In some , Afrikaners were classified as poor, with some research claiming that up to , were struggling to survive.
In the early s, Genocide Watch theorised that farm attacks constituted early warning signs of genocide against Afrikaners. It criticised the South African government for its inaction on the issue, noting that, since , "ethno-European farmers" which included non-Afrikaner farmers of European race in their report were being murdered at a rate four times higher than that of the general South African population.
Since , significant numbers of White people have emigrated from South Africa. Large Afrikaner and English-speaking South African communities have developed in the UK and other developed countries.
Between and , more than one million South Africans emigrated overseas, citing the high rate of violent and racially motivated Black on White crime as the main reason to leave.
North Eastern Congo to develop efficient commercial farming there. There were , speakers of Afrikaans in Namibia, forming 9.
The majority identify with the Coloured and Baster communities of colour. Some have also settled in Brazil , Argentina , Mexico , and Qatar.
Numerous young Afrikaners have taken advantage of working holiday visas made available by the United Kingdom, as well as the Netherlands and Belgium , to gain work experience.
The scheme under which UK working holiday visas were issued ended on 27 November ; this was replaced by the Tier 5 Youth Mobility visa.
As of , Georgia is encouraging Afrikaner immigration to assist in reviving the country's agriculture industry, which has fallen on hard times.
At the time of settlement, Dutch traders and others came out of a majority- Protestant area, where the Reformation had resulted in high rates of literacy in the Netherlands.
Boers in South Africa were part of the Calvinist tradition in the northern Europe Protestant countries. Missionaries established new congregations on the frontier and churches were the center of communities.
Pentecostal churches have also attracted new members. In April , some million people, mostly Afrikaners, were expected at a prayer gathering held by Angus Buchan in Bloemfontein.
The Afrikaans language changed over time from the Dutch spoken by the first white settlers at the Cape. From the late 17th century, the form of Dutch spoken at the Cape developed differences, mostly in morphology but also in pronunciation and accent and, to a lesser extent, in syntax and vocabulary, from that of the Netherlands, although the languages are still similar enough to be mutually intelligible.
Settlers who arrived speaking German and French soon shifted to using Dutch and later Afrikaans. The process of language change was influenced by the languages spoken by slaves, Khoikhoi and people of mixed descent, as well as by Cape Malay , Zulu , British and Portuguese.
While the Dutch of the Netherlands remained the official language, the new dialect, often known as Cape Dutch, African Dutch, "kitchen Dutch", or taal meaning "language" in Afrikaans developed into a separate language by the 19th century, with much work done by the Genootskap van Regte Afrikaners and other writers such as Cornelis Jacobus Langenhoven.
In a act of Parliament, Afrikaans was given equal status with Dutch as one of the two official languages English being the second of the Union of South Africa.
There was much objection to the attempt to legislate the creation of Afrikaans as a new language. Marthinus Steyn , a prominent jurist and politician, and others were vocal in their opposition.
Today, Afrikaans is recognised as one of the eleven official languages of the new South Africa , and is the third largest mother tongue spoken in South Africa.
In June , the Department of Basic Education included Afrikaans as an African language to be compulsory for all pupils, according to a new policy.
Langenhoven and Etienne Leroux. Nobel Prize winner J. Coetzee is of Afrikaner descent, but spoke English at home as a child in Cape Town.
He has translated some works from Afrikaans and Dutch into English, but writes only in English. Music is probably the most popular art form among Afrikaners.
While the traditional Boeremusiek "Boer music" and Volkspele "people games" folk dancing enjoyed popularity in the past, most Afrikaners today favour a variety of international genres and light popular Afrikaans music.
American country and western music has enjoyed great popularity and has a strong following among many South Africans. Some also enjoy a social dance event called a sokkie.
There is also an underground rock music movement and bands like the controversial Fokofpolisiekar have a large following. The television Channel MK channel also supports local Afrikaans music and mainly screens videos from the Afrikaans Rock genre.
In the 20th century, Mimi Coertse , an internationally renowned opera singer, was well known. Afrikaner film musicals flourished in the s and s, and have returned in the 21st century with two popular films, Liefling and Pretville , featuring singers such as Bobby van Jaarsveld , Steve Hofmeyr , and Kevin Leo.
A typical recipe for boerekos consists of meat usually roasted in a pan or oven , vegetables such as green beans, roots or peas, and starch such as potatoes or rice , with sauce made in the pot in which the meat is cooked.
Afrikaners eat most types of meat such as mutton, beef, chicken, pork and various game species, but the meat of draft animals such as horses and donkeys is rarely eaten and is not part of traditional cuisine.
East Indian influence emerges in dishes such as bobotie and curry and the use of turmeric and other spices in cooking.
Afrikaner households like to eat combinations such as pap-and-sausage, curry meat and rice and even fish and chips although the latter are bought rather than self-prepared.
Rugby , cricket and golf are generally considered to be the most popular sports among Afrikaners. Rugby in particular is considered one of the central pillars of the Afrikaner community.
The national rugby team, the Springboks , did not compete in the first two rugby world cups in and because of anti-apartheid sporting boycotts of South Africa but later on the Springboks won the , , and Rugby World Cups.
Boere-sport also played a big role in the Afrikaner history. It consisted of a variety of sports like tug of war , three-legged races, jukskei , skilpadloop tortoise walk and other games.
The world's first ounce-denominated gold coin, the Krugerrand , was struck at the South African Mint on 3 July In April , the South African Mint coined a collectors R1 gold coin commemorating the Afrikaner people as part of its cultural series, depicting the Great Trek across the Drakensberg mountains.
Die Voortrekkers is a youth movement for Afrikaners in South Africa and Namibia with a membership of over 10 active members to promote cultural values, maintaining norms and standards as Christians, and being accountable members of public society.
The vast majority of Afrikaners supported the Democratic Alliance DA , the official opposition party, in the general election. Smaller numbers are involved in nationalist or separatist political organisations.
The Freedom Front Plus is also leading the Volkstaat initiative and is closely associated with the small town of Orania.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Afrikaner disambiguation. Southern African ethnic group descended from predominantly Dutch settlers.
English various Bantu languages. Main article: Distribution of white South Africans. Main article: Great Trek. Main article: Boer Republics.
See also: South African Argentines. Verwoerd B. Vorster Jacob Zuma. Related topics. Main article: South Africa under apartheid.
See also: Brain drain in South Africa. Main article: Afrikaner Calvinism. Main article: Afrikaans. Play media. See also: South African literature. See also: South African protest music.
South Africa portal. Retrieved 24 August Pretoria: Statistics South Africa. Archived PDF from the original on 13 May The number of people who described themselves as white in terms of population group and specified their first language as Afrikaans in South Africa's Census was 2,, The total white population with a first language specified was 4,, and the total population was 51,, Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 18 March Bradt Travel Guides Ltd.
Retrieved 8 August Business Insider South Africa. Retrieved 11 October James Louis Garvin, editor. Archived from the original on 20 February Retrieved 20 February Pithouse, C.
Mitchell, R. Heese Die herkoms van die Afrikaner, — [ The origin of the Afrikaner ] in Afrikaans.
Cape Town: A. Roots of Afrikaans: Selected writings of Hans den Besten. Claremont: David Philip Pty Ltd. Prelude to Colonialism: The Dutch in Asia ed.
Verloren B. David Philip Publishers Pty Ltd. Cape Town: The Making of a City ed. New Africa Books. The Atlantic World ed.
Routledge Books. Slavery in Dutch South Africa ed. Cambridge University Press. Sommige individue hang ander godsdienste aan soos Boeddhisme en Islam.
Volgens die Gelofte erken die Voortrekkers dat hulle dit nie uit eie krag sou kon doen nie, en word die dag tot vandag nog herdenk, gewoonlik met feesgeleenthede wat 'n erediens en 'n feesrede toespraak vir die geleentheid insluit.
Daar is Afrikaners wat die gelofte nie meer ag nie en die tradisionele Christen-kultuur wat die Afrikaner vir so lank gekenmerk het, verlaat.
In 'n onlangse meningspeiling in Die Burger Januarie , het 'n meerderheid Afrikaners aangedui dat hulle gekant is teen 'n privaat Bybelskool se reg om teen praktiserende homoseksueles te diskrimineer in terme van hul toelatingsbeleid.
Afrikaners beoefen 'n verskeidenheid sportsoorte, maar deur hul geskiedenis het hulle veral uitgeblink in atletiek , boks , swem , hengel , tennis en rugby.
Hedendaags het fietsry , motorresies , krieket , karate , stoei en gholf as sporte bygekom waarin Afrikaners gedy. Die verwoesting wat die Britse magte tydens die Tweede Vryheidsoorlog in die Transvaal en die Vrystaat aangerig het, het 'n groot deel van veral die landelike meublement vernietig, sodat daar in hierdie gebiede min 19de eeuse meubels bestaan en die huishoudelike voorkoms van baie Afrikanerfamilies 'n 20ste eeuse begin het.
Baie voorbeelde hiervan is in die Pretoriase middestad te vinde. Die nuutste argitektoniese neiging wat veral in die noorde van Suid-Afrika ontstaan het en algaande suid uitgebrei het, is die bou van "Boere-Toskaanse" huise, oftewel huise met 'n verlangse Italiaanse karakter.
Hedendaagse meubelment is in lyn met goedkoper Westerse neigings wat leer of nagemaakte leer of lapmeubels insluit.
Afrikaners het 'n verskeidenheid van monumente in Suid-Afrika opgerig wat hul kultuur-historiese erfenis uitbeeld. Voorbeelde hiervan is die Voortrekkermonument in Pretoria , die Eerste Taalmonument in Burgersdorp, die Afrikaanse Taalmonument in Paarl , die Hugenotemonument in Franschhoek , die Bloedriviermonument naby Newcastle en die Vrouemonument in Bloemfontein.
Afrikaners het die Britse tradisie van uniforms en dissipline oorgeneem en 'n verskeidenheid skole opgebou, feitlik in elke dorp met 'n Afrikanerbevolking in die land.
Tot onlangs het die Afrikaanse kultuur in elke skool gebloei, met operettes, toneelspel, voordragte, koorsang, musiek, kunswedstryde, die studie van letterkunde, en ander bedrywighede.
Die verengelsing van die samelewing het egter sy tol begin eis, met menige skole wat verengels het, dissipline en tradisies wat meer en meer uitsterf en kulturele bedrywighede wat as gevolg van 'n doelbewuste onderwysbeleid deur die huidige regering in Suid-Afrika uitsterf.
Baie Afrikaners het begin om ook hul kinders in veral Engelsmedium-privaatskole in te skryf, terwyl daar met privaatinstellings soos Curro 'n groter aanbieding vir privaatskole met 'n mate van geleentheid vir Afrikaanse onderrig is.
Baie Afrikaners is steeds tevrede met van die Afrikaanse staatskole, veral die sterker skole in Pretoria, wat hulle momentum uit die vorige regeringstydperk voor behou het, hoewel die druk van staatsvoorskrifte onsekerheid oor die gehalte van die onderwys veroorsaak.
Daar is ook enkele skole wat losweg binne die Instituut vir Christelike Onderwys ICO gegroepeer is en sterk klem plaas op gereformeerde belydenis in die onderwys.
Aangesien gereformeerdheid en Afrikaanstaligheid sterk saamval in Suid-Afrika, is hierdie skole ook in wese Afrikaans, hoewel hierdie groepering uitdruklik nie gesien wil word as Afrikanerskole nie.
Beide hierdie groeperinge van skole werk binne die raamwerk van die staatskurrikulum, maar volg 'n christelike onderwysplan, lewer onderrig in Afrikaans, en in die BCVO se geval, word geskiedenis vanuit 'n Afrikaner-perspektief aangebied.
Aros , die selfstandige onderwysersopleidingsinstansie wat noue bande met die Gereformeerde Kerke van Suid-Afrika GKSA het, is nog 'n meestal Afrikaanse onafhanklike onderwysinstelling wat in die onlangse geskiedenis tot stand gekom het.
Ander name soos die Suid-Afrikaanse Onderwysersunie SAOU en Impakonderwys word ook in Afrikaner-onderwys gesien, wat aantoon dat daar heelwat inisiatief en 'n liefde vir onderwys onder Afrikaners is, hoewel hierdie organisasies tweetalig Afrikaans en Engels diens lewer.
Daar is ook 'n privaatmaatskappy, indicato met 'n selfstandige vakgerigte kurrikulum in Afrikaans. Solidariteit se Helpende Hand-afdeling is betrokke by maatskaplike hulp aan skoolkinders, en het in aangekondig dat hulle meer aktief by skoolonderwys se akademiese kant betrokke gaan raak.
Staatsmanne soos generaals Louis Botha en J. Hierdie artikel handel oor Afrikaners as etniese groep. Vir inligting oor die beesras, sien Afrikanerbees.
Besoek op 24 Augustus Statistics South Africa. Besoek op 26 Junie Geargiveer vanaf die oorspronklike op 27 Mei Besoek op 18 Maart Besoek op 12 Mei Bradt Travel Guides Ltd.
Besoek op 8 Augustus Besoek op 16 Mei Brand South Africa. URL besoek op 29 Mei Hierdie bron groepeer Khoi, Bengaals, en swart onder kleurling, wat ten tye van die vorming van die Afrikaner nog nie 'n begrip was nie.
Balkema, Kaapstad, Bladsy Veel Kaapkolonisten, door familie en geschiedenis nauw verbonden met de oorlogvoerende stamverwanten, vatten de wapenen op en vochten tegen de britse troepen.
Sommigen van hun werden gevangen en, omdat ze hun eed van trouw aan de Koningin hadden gebroken, doodgeschoten; anderen van wie de trouw verdacht werd ondergingen hetzelfde lot.
Allen, die na de vrede in de Kolonie terugkeerden en waarvan bewezen kon worden dat ze tegen britse troepen hadden gevocht en, verloren wegens hoogverraad hun kiesrecht voor een aantal jaren of voor altijd, bijelkaar ruim 10, personen.
C, Hoogleraar in de geschiedenis aan het Victoria College te Stellenbosch lid van het historisch genootschap te Utrecht.
Londen:Longmans, Green en Co. Dit leek die voormannen een verkeerde beweging; met alle overredingskracht werd dit trekken tegengehouden en zo werden velen voor het volk behouden, die anders spoedig tot Portugezen of Duitsers zouden geworden zijn.